In New Zealand, the dairy and beef industry is one of the most important bringing in high revenue figures year in year out. In order to keep the industry vibrant, New Zealand farmers employ several strategies one of which refers to cattle breeding. Cattle breeding refers to the production of a new breed of cattle. In order to produce a new breed of cattle, there are two methods that New Zealand farmers use.
Natural breeding means that the cattle breed on their own without any external influence. For this to occur, the farmer needs to identify the bull possessing the characteristics that the farmer wants. The characteristics can be anything from physical appearance, that is, colour, stature, or size or it the characteristics can have something to do with inner things such as the type of meat produced, amount of milk produced, and endurance among others. Once the farmer identifies the bull, the next step is to acquire it (purchase or borrow) and bring it into the farm or ranch. At the start of the breeding season, the farmer takes the bull into the same paddock with other cows or heifers. The bull remains in that same paddock with the cows and heifers till the end of the breeding season. By that time, a few cows would have conceived.
The other breeding strategy employed by farmers in New Zealand is through artificial insemination. Using this strategy, farmers after identifying a bull of their choice acquires it and brings it to the farm or ranch. Once at the ranch, the farmer uses an inseminating pipette to take the semen of the bull and insert the semen into the cervix of the cow or heifer through the vagina. The semen is inserted either at the beginning of the body of the uterus or deep in the cervix.